HER-2 testing for breast cancer

What is HER2?

The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene accounts for producing HER2 proteins. HER2 proteins are found on the face of some breast cancer cells. When they’re triggered, they suggest breast cancer cells to multiply and divide. Usually, HER2 proteins modulate and manage the growth of breast cells. However, if the HER2 gene is mutated, that’s true in about 1 of 5 cases of breast cancer, it makes a lot of HER2 proteins. This leads to breast cells growing and dividing out of control.

HER2 Overexpresion Breast Cancer normal cell vs cancer cells
Breast Cancer Cell vs Normal Breast cell

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests and ISH for HER2 protein receptors testing?

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests are done to see if breast cancer cells have too many HER2 protein receptors. An in situ hybridization (ISH) test looks at the genetics of this sample, and also the results of the evaluation are also classified as positive, negative, or equivocal. An equivocal result requires further testing.

Sometimes IHC testing is completed . But if IHC testing is inconclusive, an ISH evaluation should be done. In many cases, an ISH test can confirm if the cancer is HER2-positive or HER2-negative.

Whether an initial ISH evaluation is inconclusive, an IHC may be performed or a repeat ISH evaluation on a new tissue sample could be required. Your doctor might want to get an extra biopsy to check another sample. Sometimes, both IHC and ISH tests may be needed to confirm HER2 status.

The immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) services are supplied to customers with specific needs for the tissue array experiments. These analyses are conducted to localize the protein/gene of interest by using customer-supplied antibodies, DNA fragments or oligonucleotides on normal and diseased human tissues selected from tissue array lender. These services are highly cost-effective and ran to the highest standards to assist you in understanding the function of your genes/proteins or in identification and analysis of your potential diagnostic and therapeutic goals. The results are shown as a publishable, detailed pathology report followed by high-resolution digital photos.

Imunohisto Chemestry breast cancer
HER2+ and HER2-; different type of staining H&E ER PR
Different type of staining in IHC HER2 positive vs HER2 negative

What is FISH?

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an evaluation that”maps” the hereditary material in a individual’s cells. This evaluation may be used to visualize certain genes or parts of genes. The further copies of the HER2 receptor which are current, the greater HER2 receptors that the cells have. These HER2 receptors get signals that stimulate the development of breast cancer cells.

The FISH test results will inform you that the cancer is “favorable” or”adverse” (an outcome occasionally reported as”zero”) for HER2. FISH is considered more precise. Oftentimes, a lab is going to do the IHC test , ordering FISH only as long as the IHC results do not clearly show if the cells are either HER2-positive or negative.

IHC positive FISH positive
HER2 positive tested with FISH vs HER2 with ICH

 What is Whole Tissue Sections used for?

FFPE entire tissue sections are ideal candidates for localizing DNA, RNA and protein markers. The cells were fixed by formalin significantly less than 48 hours, then processed and sectioned. Two tissue segments using 5 µm (micro, micrometer) thickness is mounted onto a SuperFrost Plus glass slip. Paraffin tissue section is acceptable for detection of proteins and genes expression in certain tissues of various species.

Characteristics

• Range of tissue Species and types

• Suitable for the two immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH)

• 2 complete tissue Segments per slide

Applications

• Identification of Tumor markers and disease certain genes

• Detection of publication Enzymes and protein markers